Действительный и страдательный залог (Active and Passive Voice)
Если подлежащее обозначает лицо или предмет, совершающий действие, то глагол употребляется в форме действительного залога (Active voice).
Если же подлежащее обозначает лицо или предмет, подвергающийся действию со стороны другого лица или предмета, то глагол употребляется в форме страдательного залога (Passive voice).
Времена страдательного залога образуется при помощи глагола to be в соответствующем времени и формы причастия прошедшего времени (Past Participle) смыслового глагола.
Когда мы употребляем страдательный залог, мы акцентируем внимание на действии, и нам не всегда важно, а иногда неизвестно, кто это действие совершил.
Active voice: William Shakespeare wrote Hamlet in 1602
Passive voice: Hamlet was written in 1602
|Simple Present||Once a week, I clean the house||Once a week, the house is cleaned by me|
|Present Continuous||I am writing the letter||The letter is being written by me|
|Simple Past||They built the house last year||The house was built last year|
|Past Continuous||They were discussing this question when he entered the room||This question was being discussed when he entered the room|
|Present Perfect||Many visitors have visited that city||That city has been visited by many visitors|
|Present Perfect Continuous||Mike has been doing this work for two hours||This work has been being done by Mike for two hours|
|Past Perfect||He showed me the book which his father had written||He showed me the book which had been written by his father|
|Past Perfect Continuous||They had been discussing the plan for 3 hours before I came.||The plan had been being discussed for 3 hours when I came.|
|They will finish the work today||The work will be finished today|
(be going to)
|I am going to send him a letter||A letter is going to be sent by me|
|I shall be writing a letter to him tomorrow||A letter will be being written tomorrow|
|Future Perfect (will)||We will have translated the article by 3 pm||The article will have been translated by 3 pm|
(be going to)
|We are going to have translated the article by 3 pm||The article is going to have been translated by 3 pm|
|Used to||I used to pay all utility bills||All utility bills used to be paid by me|
|Must||You must see this film||This film must be seen|
|Future Simple in the Past
|He said that they would built the house next year||He said that the house would be built next year|
|Future Perfect in the Past||I said that I should have built the house by January||I said that the house would have been built by January|
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