Nouns in English are either countable or uncountable. If a noun is uncountable, it does not have a plural form.
We use quantifiers when we want to give someone information about the number of something: how much or how many.
Some countable nouns in English have countable and uncountable forms.
This country exports a large amount of coffee. (uncountable)
We've ordered three coffees. (=cups of coffee)
Some uncountable nouns have a plural form which is different in meaning.
The earthquake caused 5000 worth of damage. (uncountable = physical harm)
The court awarded him 5000 pounds in damages. (plural = financial compensation)
Quantifiers with countable nouns:
both, each, either, (a) few, fewer, neither, several, a couple, of hundreds of, thousands of
several, a few, quite a few, very few
Several and a few refer to countable nouns. Several means "more than a few".
He speaks several languages (3, 4 or more)
There are only a few seats left.
Quite a few emphasises the positive.
I know quite a few Russian people.
Very few emphasises a small number.
There are very few people there who speak Italian.
many, a number of, loads of, hundreds of, dozens of
These are all used with plural countable nouns. Many and a number of are used in more formal situations to talk about a non-specific number.
Loads of, hundreds of and dozens of are all used in conversation and informal contexts.
Too many is used with countable nouns to mean "more than we need or is good".
I've eaten too many cakes.
Quantifiers with uncountable nouns
a little, very little, (quite) a bit of
A little and a bit of refer to uncountable nouns. A bit of is more used in conversation and informal situations.
There's still a bit of wine left. Would you like it?
There's a bit of cheese in the fridge.
Very little emphasises a small quantity.
There's very little time left.
Quite a bit of is used to emphasise the positive. We cannot say quite a little.
There's quite a bit of interest in his new book.
much, a great deal of
Much is used to talk about large quantities. It is used with uncountable nouns and is mainly used in questions and negatives.
Hurry up, there isn't much time!
A great deal/good deal/an enormous amount of is used in positive sentences in more formal contexts.
There is a great deal of concern about the new proposals.
Too much is used with uncountable nouns to mean "more than we need or is good".
I can't sleep. I think I drank too much coffee.
Quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns:
all, any, enough, less, a lot of, lots of, more, most, no, none of, some, plenty of, heaps of, a load of, loads of, tons of
a lot of, lots of
A lot of is used with both countable and uncountable nouns. It is mainly used in informal situations. It is not usually used in negative sentences and questions. Lots of is used in the same way.
A lot of people arrived late.
enough, plenty of
Enough is used with both countable and countable nouns to mean "as much as we need". Plenty of means "more than we need".
Have you got enough money to pay the bill?
Don't worry, we've got plenty of time to get to the airport.
some and any
Some and any are both used with plural and uncountable nouns, and in positive and negative sentences.
Some refers to a limited quantity or number. It can be followed by the phrase "but not all".
Some (but not all) people like getting up early.
I don't like some of his music.
Any refers to an unlimited quantity or number. With a positive verb it means "all" and with a negative verb it means "none".
You can get on-line at any McDonald's restaurant (all of them, it doesn't matter which)
I can't think of any reasons to ask him to stay. (=none)