Adverbs modify, or tell us more about, other words. Usually adverbs modify verbs, telling us how, how often, when, or where something was done and adjectives, making them stronger or weaker. The adverb is placed after the verb it modifies and before the adjective. Adverbs can modify other adverbs, changing their degree or precision.
E.g., He works hard. (modifying verbs)
I always get up early.
I see him daily.
He is a very good doctor. (modifying adjectives)
I know her quite well. (modifying adverbs)
Compare adverbs and adjectives.
In most cases, an adverb is formed by adding -ly to an adjective. If the adjective ends in -y, replace the -y with -i and add -ly. If the adjective ends in -able, -ible, or -le, replace the -e with -y.
If the adjective ends in -ic, add -ally.
Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many adverbs do not end in -ly, and some words that end in -ly are not adverbs. For example, the words lovely, lonely, lively, friendly are adjectives.
Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective: early, fast, hard, high, late, near, straight, & wrong.
E.g., I was never a fast swimmer.
Driving fast is dangerous.
All of your answers were wrong.
People always spell my name wrong.
When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrase.
I'll be with you in a minute.
We have been living in this house for over ten years.
Adverbs of place describe where something happens. Most adverbs of place are also used as prepositions.
E.g., I went downstairs to answer the phone.
Adverbs of purpose describe why something happens.
in order to
E.g., I accidentally knocked a glass over.
Adverbs of time describe when something happens.
Recently, I've been feeling a bit depressed.
Adverbs of frequency describe how often something happens.
It's always cold in this room.
Manner adverbs describe how something happens.
E.g., She spoke very loudly.
Degree adverbs express degrees of qualities, properties, states, conditions and relations.
a (little) bit
E.g., Remarkably, she wasn't hurt in the crash.
Focusing adverbs point to something.
E.g., I didn't particularly want to go, but I had to.
Linking adverbs show a relationship between two clauses or sentences
E.g., He called when I was busy.
Evaluative and viewpoint adverbs tell us about the speaker's viewpoint or opinion about an action.
E.g., Disappointingly, she got second place.
Adverbs of certainty express how certain we feel about an action or event.
E.g., She was undoubtedly the best candidate.
Adverbs do not normally change in form, but a few have comparative and superlative forms. These are usually short adverbs and so they normally have comparative and superlative forms with -er and -est.
Adverbs with two or more syllables (-ly adverbs) form the comparative and superlative with more and most:
|carefully||more carefully||most carefully|
|beautifully||more beautifully||most beautifully|
|accurately||more accurately||most accurately|
Some adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms.
Note: Well is the adverb that corresponds to the adjective good.
E.g., She is a good student. She studies well.
E.g., A lot of people behaved badly at the party, but she behaved worst of all.