Adjective is a part of speech that modifies nouns and pronouns. Adjectives describe or give more information about nouns and pronouns. You need to distinguish adjectives from adverbs. An adverb is a word or set of words that modifies verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
Compare: He works hard (наречие). His hard work (прилагательное).
A tall man (size or measurement)
A round table (shape)
A young woman (age)
A red shirt (colour)
French cuisine (origin or nationality)
Cotton dresses (material)
A fantastic book (opinion, feelings or qualities)
Sharp knives (observation or characteristics)
A coffee table (purpose)
If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adjective, it is called an Adjective Clause.
E.g., Pizza, which most people love, is not very healthy.
Adjectives in English are invariable. They do not change their form depending on the gender or number of the noun.
E.g., This is a red car.
Those are some red cars.
These are common suffixes for adjectives. Learning these word-endings can help you recognize adjectives.
-able/-ible – portable, pleasurable, eatable, accessible, uncomfortable
-al – formal, educational, gradual, illegal, central
-an – Russian, Italian, urban
-ar – cellular, popular, spectacular, vulgar
-ed - excited, bored, interested
-ent – intelligent, potent, silent, violent
-ful –hopeful, beautiful , useful, powerful, doubtful
-ic/-ical – athletic, energetic, heroic, poetic
-ine – bovine, canine, equine, feminine, masculine
-ile – agile, docile, fertile, virile
-ing - exciting, boring, interesting
-ish - selfish, foolish, childish
-ive – informative, extensive, selective
-less – careless, helpless, useless, timeless, homeless
-ous – mysterious, famous, dangerous, enormous
-some – awesome, handsome, lonesome, wholesome
-y - hairy, rainy, messy, healthy
When a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the function of the adjective. The usual order is:
Determiners - articles, adverbs or quantity (four, ten, a few, several)
Observation - post determiners and limiter adjectives (a real hero, a perfect idiot) and adjectives subject to subjective measure (beautiful, interesting), or objects with a value (best, cheapest, costly)
Size and shape - tall, tiny, huge, large, round, square + physical properties (e.g. speed)
Temperature - hot, cold, cool
Age - young, old, new, ancient, six-year-old
Colour - red, black, pale
Origin - Swedish, Victorian, Canadian
Material - glass, silver, woollen, metallic, wooden
Qualifier - a noun or verb acting as adjective (rocking chair, book cover).
E.g., There is a beautiful, small, square, antique, brown, French, wooden coffee table in the middle of the room.
Comparative adjectives are used to compare differences between the two objects they modify. They are used in sentences where two nouns are compared, in this pattern:
Noun (subject) + verb + comparative adjective + than + noun (object)
E.g., Kate is taller than her sister.
Superlative adjectives are used to describe an object which is at the upper or lower limit of a quality. They are used in sentences where a subject is compared to a group of objects.
Noun (subject) + verb + the + superlative adjective + noun (object)
E.g., Kate is the tallest of all her siblings.
How to make comparative and superlative adjectives.
For one- and some two-syllable words we add -er to the adjective to make it a comparative and -est for the superlative.
If the adjective has a + single vowel +consonant, the consonant must be doubled before adding the ending.
Adjectives with two or more syllables take more or less and most:
|beautiful||more beautiful||most beautiful|
|sensitive||more sensitive||most sensitive|
|dangerous||more dangerous||most dangerous|
Irregular comparatives and superlatives